List Of Amphibians With Pictures & Facts: Examples Of Amphibian Species

A list of amphibians with pictures and facts. Included are examples of amphibian species from all three amphibian orders: Anura (frogs), Urodela (salamanders), and Apoda (caecilians).


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Introduction To Amphibians

(Click here to go directly to the list of amphibians)

Amphibians are vertebrate animals in the class Amphibia. After hatching from their eggs, most amphibians go through an aquatic larval stage, before metamorphosizing into their adult, air-breathing forms.

The class Amphibia contains three orders: Anura (frogs), Urodela (salamanders), and Apoda (caecilians). (Toads are included in the order Anura, and newts are included in Urodela.)

There are around 8,000 known amphibian species, almost 90% of which are frogs.

Examples of Amphibians

Examples of amphibian species include: frogs such as the American bullfrog, red-eyed tree frog and Goliath frog; salamanders such as the hellbender, European fire salamander and common mudpuppy; and caecilians such as the yellow-striped caecilian and Taita African caecilian.

In the list below you’ll find pictures and facts on these and other amphibians from all around the world.


For information on a particular species, click on its name in the index below. Continue scrolling to browse all of the amphibians on the list.

List Of Amphibians


African Bullfrog

African bullfrogs

  • Scientific Name: Pyxicephalus adspersus
  • Where found: Africa
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

The African bullfrog is a large frog found in southern Africa. It lives in a variety of habitats, including savannas, shrublands, marshes and farmland.

The species is a voracious predator; its diet includes a variety of species, including insects, small mammals, reptiles and other amphibians – including African bullfrog tadpoles!

Although the African bullfrog has sharp teeth and will bite if it feels threatened, the species is kept as an exotic pet.

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African Common Toad / Square-Marked Toad

African Common Toad
Image: Bernard DUPONT from FRANCE, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific Name: Amietophrynus regularis
  • Where found: Africa
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

The African common toad goes by a number of other names, including: square-marked toad, African toad, Egyptian toad, African bouncing toad and Reuss’s toad.

The species is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa (the area south of the Sahara desert), and lives in a number of different habitats.

This large, warty-skinned African amphibian grows to lengths of up to 13 cm / 5.12 in. It is a member of the ‘true toad’ family Bufonidae. Like all members of this family, it has poison glands located on the side of the head, behind each eye.

The species is a popular pet and will live over 10 years if well-treated.

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Algerian Ribbed Newt

Algerian Ribbed Newt
Image: Karim Chouchane, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific Name: Pleurodeles nebulosus
  • Where found: Africa
  • Conservation Status: Vulnerable

The Algerian ribbed newt is one of the relatively few salamanders found in Africa. (Salamanders are usually found in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.)

This African amphibian is found in the North African countries of Algeria and Tunisia. It lives in freshwater marshes and streams. The species is threatened by pollution and habitat loss.

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American Bullfrog

American Bullfrog

 

  • Scientific name: Lithobates catesbeianus
  • Where found: North America
  • Conservation status: Least Concern

The American bullfrog is the largest frog found in North America. The species is native to the eastern United States and Canada, and has also been introduced to many other parts of the United States and as well as Mexico.

The American bullfrog is olive-green in color. Males are smaller than females, and can be identified by their yellow throats.

The bullfrog gets its name from the loud, ‘bull-like’ calls made by the males during the mating season.

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American Spadefoot Toads

Plains Spadefoot Toad
Plains Spadefoot Toad Spea bombifrons
  • Family: Scaphiopodidae
  • Where found: North America

Members of the amphibian family Scaphiopodidae are known as the American spadefoot toads. They are divided between two genera: Scaphiopus, or North American spadefoots; and Spea, or western spadefoot toads.

American spadefoot toads get their name from the hard, spade-like projections on their feet. This adaptation allows them to dig backwards into soft earth. Some species spend as much as 10 months of the year buried underground.

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Asian Common Toad

Asian Common Toad
Image: Anagha devi, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific Name: Duttaphrynus melanostictus
  • Where found: Asia
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

The Asian common toad is found in South and Southeast Asia. It is common throughout much of its range and is found in a variety of non-forest habitats.

The Asian common toad is a member of the ‘true toad’ family bufonidae. This large species grows to around 20 cm (8 in) in body length.

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Axolotl

Axolotl

  • Scientific name: Ambystoma mexicanum
  • Where found: North America
  • Conservation status: Critically Endangered

The axolotl is an aquatic salamander found in Mexico. Due to habitat loss the species is now critically endangered in the wild. Unlike many amphibians, the axolotl does not undergo metamorphosis. It retains its gills and remains in the water even as an adult.

Axolotls have the ability to regenerate lost limbs and other body parts.

  • You can find out more about axolotls on this page: Axolotl Facts

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Beddome’s Caecilian / Yellow-Striped Caecilian

Beddomes Caecilian
Image: Rama Narayanan, CC BY 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific Name: Ichthyophis beddomei
  • Where found: Asia
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Beddome’s caecilian, also known as the yellow-striped caecilian or Nilgherries caecilian, is an amphibian found in the rainforests of India’s Western Ghats mountain range. Its body is brown with a yellow strip running along each side. The species reaches a maximum length of around 27 cm (10.6 n.).

Beddome’s caecilian burrows in earth and leaf-litter. Its larvae are aquatic, living in streams and mud.

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Cane Toad

Cane Toad

  • Scientific name: Rhinella marina
  • Where found: South America, Australia
  • Conservation status: Least Concern

The cane toad is native to Central and South America, and is an invasive species in Australia and on several islands in the Caribbean and Southeast Asia.

This large amphibian was originally introduced as a natural means of controlling crop-damaging insects. The species is now seen as a pest whose arrival has been detrimental to many native species.

Large glands behind the cane toad’s eyes produce powerful toxins. Eating a cane toad can be fatal for a native animal. Many Australian species have been negatively affected by the arrival of the cane toad; some (such as the northern quoll) are now endangered due largely to the amphibian’s introduction.

  • You can find out more about the cane toad on this page: Cane Toad Facts

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Chinese Giant Salamander

Chinese Giant Salamander
Photo: J. Patrick Fischer, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific Name: Andrias davidianus
  • Where found: Asia
  • Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

The Chinese giant salamander is the world’s biggest amphibian. It grows to lengths of up to 1.8 m (5.9 ft.) and weighs up to 30 kg (66 lb.). Its body is dark brown with mottled markings. It has a flat head and body, and a long, paddle-like tail.

The Chinese giant salamander is fully aquatic, retaining its gills even in adulthood. It is found in hill streams in forested areas in central, south-western and southern China.

The species is critically endangered. It has been heavily hunted for food and for use in traditional Chinese medicine. It has also suffered from habitat loss.

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Common Mudpuppy

Common Mudpuppy Necturus maculosus

  • Scientific name: Necturus maculosus
  • Where found: North America
  • Conservation status: Least Concern

The common mudpuppy is found in freshwater streams and lakes in the eastern United States and southern Canada. It is an aquatic salamander that retains its gills in adulthood and spends all of its life in the water.

The common mudpuppy reaches lengths of around 33 cm (13 in) and is grey-brown in color with darker spots. This nocturnal species preys on invertebrates such as insects, mollusks and worms.

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Common Toad

Common Toad

  • Scientific Name: Bufo bufo
  • Where found: Europe
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

The common toad is found throughout Europe and is the continent’s fourth most common amphibian. The species is a member of the ‘true toad’ family, Bufonidae. Like all members of this family, it has conspicuous poison glands located on either side of the neck behind the eye.

This warty-skinned amphibian migrates to the same breeding pool every year.

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Crucifix Toad / Holy Cross Frog

Holy Cross Frog
Photo: Tnarg 12345 at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific name: Notaden bennettii
  • Where found: Australia
  • Conservation status: Least Concern

The crucifix toad – also known as the holy cross frog – is one of Australia’s most striking amphibians. The frog’s yellow / lime green coloration & bright markings warn potential predators that eating it will come at a cost; the frog secretes a thick, sticky ‘glue’ when threatened. A cross marking on the frog’s back gives the species its name.

The crucifix toad spends much of its life underground, encased in a cocoon. Only after periods of heavy rain does it emerge to breed.

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Edible Frog

Edible Frog

  • Scientific Name: Pelophylax kl. Esculentus
  • Where found: Europe
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

The edible frog is Europe’s second most common amphibian. In France its legs are eaten as a delicacy (hence the species’ name). The species is part of the ‘green frog species complex’ – a group of very closely-related species that also contains the marsh frog and pool frog.

The edible frog grows to around 11 cm / 4.33 in. It is bright green in color, with yellow and black markings. It usually has a yellow stripe running along the center of its back. When calling it inflates two large air sacs; one on either side of the head.

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European Common Frog / Common Frog / Grass Frog

European common frog

  • Scientific Name: Rana temporaria
  • Where found: Europe
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Also known as the European common brown frog, the common frog and the grass frog, the European common frog is Europe’s most common amphibian. The species is present throughout the continent, usually living in or near ponds and marshes.

Common frogs that live in northern Europe hibernate during the winter.

  • You can find out more about the European common frog on this page: Common Frog Facts

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European Fire Salamander

Fire Salamander

 

  • Scientific Name: Salamandra Salamandra
  • Where found: Europe
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

The fire salamander is one of Europe’s most common salamanders. The species is found in forest and woodland habitats throughout most of mainland Europe.

This distinctive amphibian is black with patches of yellow. It grows to lengths of around 25 cm, with some individuals occasionally reaching lengths of over 30cm.

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Goliath Frog

Goliath Frog
Photo: Ryan Somma, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific Name: Conraua goliath
  • Where found: Africa
  • Conservation Status: Endangered

The goliath frog is the world’s largest frog. This African amphibian has a body length of up to 32 cm / 12.6 in. and can weigh up to 3.25 kg / 7.17 lb.

The goliath frog is found in a small area of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea in western Africa. Its preferred habitats are fast-flowing rainforest rivers and waterfalls.

The species is endangered due to habitat loss, hunting for food, and collection for the pet trade.

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Green Tree Frog / White’s Tree Frog

Australian green tree frog Litoria caerulea

  • Scientific name: Litoria caerulea
  • Where found: Australia
  • Conservation status: Least Concern

The green tree frog is a large species of tree frog, with a body length of up to 11.5 cm (4.5 in). It is found across much of north and east Australia.

The species is found in a variety of habitats, including woodlands and grasslands. It is also found in urban environments, and is often seen in Australian gardens.

The green tree frog is kept as a pet and can live over 20 years in captivity.

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Hellbender

hellbender

  • Scientific name: Cryptobranchus alleganiensis
  • Where found: North America
  • Conservation status: Near Threatened

Reaching lengths of up to 74 cm (29 in.), the hellbender is the largest amphibian of the Americas, and the third-largest amphibian in the world (only the Chinese giant salamander and Japanese giant salamanders are larger).

The hellbender inhabits clean, fast-flowing rivers and streams in the eastern United States. Although the species has gills, it is also able to breathe via its skin, and has loose frills of skin running along its sides for this purpose.

  • You can find out more about the hellbender on this page: Hellbender Facts

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Horned Marsupial Frog

Horned Marsupial Frog
Photo: brian.gratwicke, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific name: Gastrotheca cornuta
  • Where found: South America, Central America
  • Conservation status: Endangered

The horned marsupial frog is one of a number of ‘marsupial frogs’ in the family Hemiphractidae.

Marsupial frogs are so-named because their young develop in pouches on the female’s back.

The horned marsupial frog’s eggs are the largest-known amphibian eggs. The species’ entire larval stage is spent in the mother’s pouch; the larvae emerge as small frogs, known as “froglets”.

The horned marsupial frog changes color at night, when it becomes tan rather than brown.

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Long-Nosed Horned Frog

Long Nosed Horned Frog
Photo: Pavel Kirillov from St.Petersburg, Russia, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific Name: Megophrys nasuta
  • Where found: Asia
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

The long-nosed horned frog lives in rainforests in Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra and Borneo. Its ‘horns’ are triangular projections above the eyes. The species also has an extended, triangular nose. Its body is patterned with various shades of brown, providing excellent camouflage against the leafy forest floor habitat in which the frog lives.

Although the species’ global conservation rating is ‘Least Concern’, in Singapore it is an endangered species because habitat loss has caused a serious decline in its population.

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Nauta Salamander

Nauta Salamander
Photo: Geoff Gallice from Gainesville, FL, USA, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific name: Bolitoglossa altamazonica
  • Where found: South America, Central America
  • Conservation status: Least Concern

Most of South America’s amphibians are anurans (frogs or toads). Salamanders are much better represented in North America, with comparatively few being found south of the Equator.

However, there are some salamanders present in South America. One of these is the Nauta salamander. Like many South American salamanders, it is a member of the family Plethodontidae. Members of this family are known as “lungless salamanders”.

As the name suggests, amphibians in this family lack lungs. Instead, they are able to ‘breathe’ via their skin and tissue in their mouths.

The Nauta salamander is found in the lowland rainforests of Central and South America. It reaches lengths of around 10 cm / 4in.

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Paedophryne Amanuensis

Paedophryne Amanuensis
Photo: Rittmeyer EN, Allison A, Gründler MC, Thompson DK, Austin CC, CC BY 2.5, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific name: Paedophryne amanuensis
  • Where found: Papua New Guinea

With a body length of around 7.7 mm / 0.3 in, Paedophryne amanuensis is not just the world’s smallest frog; it’s also the world’s smallest amphibian AND the world’s smallest vertebrate!

Paedophryne amanuensis is found in forests in southeastern Papua New Guinea. It lives in the leaf litter to stay moist. The species is nocturnal, and makes a sound like an insect, which is how U.S. herpetologists Christopher Austin and Eric Rittmeyer first discovered it in 2009.

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Poison Dart Frogs

Golden Poison Dart Frog
Golden Poison Dart Frog
  • Family: Dendrobatidae
  • Where found: South America, Central America

Poison dart frogs are among the best-known of all amphibians. There are many different species of poison dart frog. They make up the family Dendrobatidae, and are only found in Central and South America.

Poison dart frogs get their name from the poisons secreted by glands in their skin. Indigenous hunters would dip the tips of their darts in these poisons, making the weapons even more lethal.

The brightly-colored skin of poison dart frogs warns potential predators that the frog is poisonous (this is known as Aposematism).

Poison dart frogs such as the golden poison frog Phyllobates terribilis are among the most poisonous of all living animals. Just one golden poison frog contains enough poison to kill up to 20 people!

  • You can find out more about poison dart frogs on this page: Poison Dart Frog Facts
  • You can find out more about the golden poison frog on this page: Golden Poison Frog Facts

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Red Eyed Tree Frog

Red Eyed Tree Frog

  • Scientific name: Agalychnis callidryas
  • Where found: South America, Central America
  • Conservation status: Least Concern

The red-eyed tree frog is one of the world’s most famous amphibians. This distinctive amphibian is found in rainforests from southern Mexico to Columbia.

The red-eyed tree frog lives in the rainforest canopy. Its green color provides camouflage from predators. If threatened, it will quickly flash open its large red eyes in an attempt to startle the aggressor.

  • You can find out more about the red-eyed tree frog on this page: Red-Eyed Tree Frog Facts

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Taita African Caecilian

Taita African Caecilian
Photo: Milvus, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific Name: Boulengerula taitana
  • Where found: Africa
  • Conservation Status: Endangered

The Taita African caecilian is found in the forests of the Taita Hills region in southeast Kenya. This snake-like amphibian reaches lengths of 34.8 cm / 13.7 in. Its body is blue with darker rings.

The species is a burrowing animal, living underground and feeding on earthworms and other invertebrates. After the young have hatched from their eggs, they feed on their mother’s specially-developed thick skin.

The Taita African caecilian is locally abundant. However, it is only present in a small area and is currently threatened by habitat loss caused by deforestation.

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Tomato Frog

Tomato Frog
Photo: Franco Andreone – see authorization, CC BY-SA 2.5, via Wikimedia Commons
  • Scientific Name: Dyscophus antongilii
  • Where found: Africa
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

The tomato frog gets its name from its tomato-like color and round shape. This African amphibian’s bright coloration warns potential predators that it is poisonous; when threatened, its skin secretes a toxic, sticky white slime.

The tomato frog is only found in Madagascar, where it inhabits a variety of habitats, including rainforests, swamps and marshes. Females are significantly larger than males, reaching lengths of up to 10.5 cm / 4.13 in.

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White-Lipped Tree Frog / Giant Tree Frog

White-Lipped Tree Frog

  • Scientific name: Litoria infrafrenata
  • Where found: Australia, Southeast Asia
  • Conservation status: Least Concern

The white-lipped tree frog is the world’s largest tree frog. The body length of a female (the larger of the sexes) can reach 14 cm / 5.5 in.

The species is bright green with a white stripe that runs along the lower lip and continues along either side of the neck. Large pads on the toes help the frog climb trees.

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Discover More With Active Wild

You can find pictures and facts on more amphibians on the following pages:

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